Eliot died, wrote Robert Giroux, "the world became a lesser place. Whether he is liked or disliked is of no importance, but he must be read. The only "method," Eliot once wrote, is "to be very intelligent.
Questions therefore arise as to what is and what is not essential to it. Is a play what its author thought he was writing, or the words he wrote? Is a play the way in which those words are intended to be embodied, or their actual interpretation by a director and the actors on a particular stage?
Is a play in part the expectation an audience brings to the theatre, or is it the real response to what is seen and heard? Since drama is such a complex process of communication, its study and evaluation is as uncertain as it is mercurial. All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players and spectators accept the rules of a game.
Drama is a decidedly unreal activity, which can be indulged only if everyone involved admits it.
Here lies some of the fascination of its study. For one test of great drama is how far it can take the spectator beyond his own immediate reality and to what use this imaginative release can be put.
But the student of drama must know the rules with which the players began the game before he can make this kind of judgment. These rules may be conventions of writing, acting, or audience expectation. Only when all conventions are working together smoothly in synthesis, and the make-believe of the experience is enjoyed passionately with mind and emotion, can great drama be seen for what it is: Drama in some form is found in almost every society, primitive and civilized, and has served a wide variety of functions in the community.
There are, for example, records of a sacred drama in Egypt 2, years before the Common Era, and Thespis in the 6th century bce in ancient Greece is accorded the distinction of being the first known playwright. Elements of drama such as mime and dancecostume and decor long preceded the introduction of words and the literary sophistication now associated with a play.
Moreover, such basic elements were not superseded by words, merely enhanced by them. Only then can dramatic literature be discussed as such. The texts of plays indicate the different functions they served at different times.
Some plays embraced nearly the whole community in a specifically religious celebration, as when all the male citizens of a Greek city-state came together to honour their gods or when the annual Feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with the great medieval Christian mystery cycles.
On the other hand, the ceremonious temple ritual of the early Noh drama of Japan was performed at religious festivals only for the feudal aristocracy. But the drama may also serve a more directly didactic purpose, as did the morality plays of the later Middle Ages, some 19th-century melodramasand the 20th-century discussion plays of George Bernard Shaw and Bertolt Brecht.
Plays can satirize society, or they can gently illuminate human weakness; they can divine the greatness and the limitations of humans in tragedyor, in modern naturalistic playwriting, probe the human mind. Drama is the most wide-ranging of all the arts:Melodies from a Broken Organ, Cori Reese Educacion y Medernidad - Entre La Utopia y La Buro, Eduardo Terren Whales of the Arctic, Sara Swan Miller The Return of Santa Paws, Nicholas Edwards The Story of the Woman's .
Buy Harvard Classics the Five-foot Shelf of Books 51 Volume Set on plombier-nemours.com FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. Literature, most generically, is any body of written plombier-nemours.com restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in .
First Date She and First Date He is a classic comparison between a male and female plombier-nemours.com shows that we are not always as unlike as is suggested.
The first person narrative for both poems works really well. It is fun to . But as historian and Clausewitz scholar Vanya Eftimova Bellinger establishes in this ground-breaking biography of the "other" Clausewitz, Marie was far more than merely a supportive wife who facilitated her husband's legacy.
Of Byron one can say, as of no other English poet of his eminence, that he added nothing to the language, that he discovered nothing in the sounds, and developed nothing in the meaning, of individual words. I cannot think of any other poet of his distinction who might so easily have been an accomplished foreigner writing in English.