As soon as one want is satisfied, another is established. Our means of satisfying these wants are unfortunately limited. This is true of the individual consumer in the form of income; the business firm that must choose a profitable good or service to allocate its resources to and is also true of a nation where governments must allocate the resources it receives through
Classroom assessment and grading practices have the potential not only to measure and report learning but also to promote it. Like successful athletic coaches, the best teachers recognize the importance of ongoing assessments and continual adjustments on the part of both teacher and student as the means to achieve maximum performance.
Unlike the external standardized tests that feature so prominently on the school landscape these days, well-designed classroom assessment and grading practices can provide the kind of specific, personalized, and timely information needed to guide both learning and teaching.
Classroom assessments fall into three categories, each serving a different purpose. Summative assessments summarize what students have learned at the conclusion of an instructional segment.
These assessments tend to be evaluative, and teachers typically encapsulate and report assessment results as a score or a grade. Familiar examples of summative assessments include tests, performance tasks, final exams, culminating projects, and work portfolios.
But by themselves, summative assessments are insufficient tools for maximizing learning. Waiting until the end of a teaching period to find out how well students have learned is simply too late.
Two other classroom assessment categories—diagnostic and formative—provide fuel for the teaching and learning engine by offering descriptive feedback along the way.
Diagnostic assessments—sometimes known as pre-assessments—typically precede instruction. Diagnostic assessments provide information to assist teacher planning and guide differentiated instruction. Examples of diagnostic assessments include prior knowledge and skill checks and interest or learning preference surveys.
Formative assessments occur concurrently with instruction. These ongoing assessments provide specific feedback to teachers and students for the purpose of guiding teaching to improve learning. Formative assessments include both formal and informal methods, such as ungraded quizzes, oral questioning, teacher observations, draft work, think-alouds, student-constructed concept maps, learning logs, and portfolio reviews.
Keeping these three categories of classroom assessment in mind, let us consider seven specific assessment and grading practices that can enhance teaching and learning. Use summative assessments to frame meaningful performance goals. On the first day of a three-week unit on nutrition, a middle school teacher describes to students the two summative assessments that she will use.
One assessment is a multiple-choice test examining student knowledge of various nutrition facts and such basic skills as analyzing nutrition labels. The second assessment is an authentic performance task in which each student designs a menu plan for an upcoming two-day trip to an outdoor education facility.
The menu plan must provide well-balanced and nutritious meals and snacks. The current emphasis on established content standards has focused teaching on designated knowledge and skills.
Teachers should then present the summative performance assessment tasks to students at the beginning of a new unit or course.
This practice has three virtues. First, the summative assessments clarify the targeted standards and benchmarks for teachers and learners. In standards-based education, the rubber meets the road with assessments because they define the evidence that will determine whether or not students have learned the content standards and benchmarks.Get an answer for 'Discuss whether the price mechanism is an effective way to solve the basic economic problem.' and find homework help for .
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Below is an essay on "Discuss Whether Regulation Is the Most Effective Way in Correcting Market Failure Such as Those Arising from Increased Carbon Emissions." from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Discuss whether taxation is the most effective solution to the market failures arising from negative externalities.
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