Many early aircraft especially biplanes were "pushers", including the Wright Flyerthe Santos-Dumont bisthe Voisin-Farman I and the Curtiss Model D used by Eugene Ely for the first ship landing on January 18, The classic "Farman" pusher had the propeller "mounted just behind the main lifting surface" with the engine fixed to the lower wing or between the wings, immediately forward of the propeller in a stub fuselage that also contained the pilot called a nacelle.
A submission of factors to be reconsidered, a Brief Abstract This paper briefly outlines the investigation and the re-investigation of the crash of a C Hercules firefighting airplane that crashed in in the mountains of California while enroute to a fire call.
The aircraft was destroyed and the crew of three were lost. A government investigation reported in that fuel had probably leaked in the center wing section and was ignited by electrical wire arcing.
Three years after the mishap, in Investigation into the causes of propeller, an investigative team climbed to the undisturbed wreckage site to re-examine the evidence. What they did not find, lead to reconstruction and re-examination of critical aspects of the event, and resulted in quite another conclusion.
That independent investigation suggests another series of factors than the fuel-ignition-explosion scenario, and asserts that the evidence strongly supports an event in which inflight structural failure precluded the ignition of wing tank fuel.
The compromise of major wing skin structure, set in motion a rapid chain of in-flight breakup events, in which the wing fuel ignition was simply most noticeable by ground and other airborne witnesses.
Firefighting air tankers - high risk - little oversight - and a history of losses Since the s, military bombers and cargo aircraft have been modified as air tankers, dropping slurry mixtures on forest and range fires, in most all states, including Alaska. Smaller military aircraft, such as the Grumman S2 are being re-engined  for use into the next century.
Many older commercial airliners are still used as well, including the DC-series 4, 6 and 7. In the late s the U. Forest Service, through civilian contractors, released Lockheed C transports from storage which were then modified  with large internal water tanks. The wild fire season in the United States was especially long and active.
Early in the year, forest and range fires raged in the southwest, and as they were controlled, fires in Idaho, Montana and Oregon flared. In the air-tanker industry, accidents claimed a Lockheed P2V near Missoula, Montana  in July, followed by the loss of the CA which is the subject of this paper.
Specifically designed fire fighting aircraft have been limited in production. Accidents rates have been very high and while the rate per flight hour has not been established, over 70 firefighting flight crews have been lost in this small industry since the s.
Investigations as to the causes of these too often have suffered from a lack of government expertise, interest and resources. For many years, the government agencies that managed the contracts, dispatched the aircraft and detailed the training, also investigated the accidents.
The crew of three, climbed to feet on a visual flight plan and took the tanker-modified aircraft  northwest toward the location of a wild fire on the slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains in southern California. About twenty minutes later, the right wing was seen to separate at the wing root in an orange fire ball and black smoke.
The location of the break-up showed the aircraft had just entered into a region of ridgelines that rim the southern end of the Mojave Desert.
Following a short radio squeal and a broadcast expletive believed to come from the aircraft, the airplane broke apart with a fire ball and impacted near the foot ridgeline.
There were no survivors. Their findings indicated a fuel explosion from electrical ignition. Probative evidence in records or at the accident scene failed to support a fuel-air explosion scenario. Nevertheless, the majority of eyewitness, some quite technically qualified as observers reported a flash and explosion that separated the wing.
The airplane was not equipped, nor was it required to be under regulations or contract, with a cockpit voice recorder CVR or flight data recorder FDR. And, according to the NTSB report, the supporting Lockheed representatives told of an earlier aircraft loss in a wing explosion which had its origin from a lightning strike.
Weather was deemed not to be a factor. The NTSB investigator remained with the two overnight due to the onset of darkness, and he departed by helicopter the next morning. They attempted, but failed, to lift the cockpit. The initial on-scene investigation diagrammed the wreckage pattern in three areas stretching southeast to northwest parallel to the main ridge, the first being a location without fire damage containing six pieces of top center wing section, then at a distance of feet more, the burned right wing and engines, followed feet later by the main wreckage of the fuselage, tail assembly, left wing and engines and the cockpit.
The total wreckage pattern covered a distance of about feet, characterized by steep terrain and small mountain timber and brush with many burned-over areas. The largest piece of the skin,  labeled as piece number one, was approximately 17 by 4 feet in size, mated with the other five smaller pieces.
The failure of the rib clips was consistent with a vertical or near vertical tensile failure. These engines and propellers were airlifted during the week following the accident by use of long-line cable under an Army Air National Guard helicopter.
The engines all showed some indication of power and rotation at impact.
Propeller strikes are often the second or third event of an evolving accident. The first event is often man overboard, collision, run aground, capsizing, sudden acceleration or deceleration, mechanical failure, hit rouge wave, hit high wake, etc. At some point propeller cables and engine control cables were pulled, even slightly at the onset, and the number three propeller, in one instant producing about horsepower in forward, slammed into about horsepower of reverse thrust. Mayday, known as Air Crash Investigation(s) The imbalance of the rotating propeller causes the engine to partly tear itself from its mounting, The propeller fell into the sea, and since it was never recovered, the cause of the accident has not been determined.
The right inboard engine however did show two key differences. While not cited as significant findings in the NTSB report, these anomalies later have taken on more importance in re-examination. Site three, fuselage, tail, cockpit and left wing The fuselage, tail section, cockpit and left wing with engines and propellers impacted on a degree slope approximately feet beyond the right wing and feet along the track from the first location of the center wing section top skin.
Approximate angles of impact could be measured from the left numbers one and two propellers to be 90 degrees to the slope.Pusher aircraft have been built in many different configurations. In the vast majority of fixed-wing aircraft the propeller or propellers are still located just behind the trailing edge of the "main lifting surface", or below the wing (paramotors) with the engine being located behind the crew position.
Mayday, also known as Air Emergency and Air Disasters in the United States and Air Crash Investigation in the UK and Australia, is a Canadian documentary series about aircraft accidents and incidents..
Episodes usually start In Medias Res while the disaster is underway, following them with a sequence of the disaster and the following investigation. EPF to conduct immediate investigation into the cause of fire Facebook Twitter \KUALA LUMPUR (Feb 13): The Employees Provident Fund (EPF) has reassured the public that its member and employer services have not been affected by the fire incident and that all transactions can be conducted as per normal at its other branches nationwide, or online via the iAkaun app.
At some point propeller cables and engine control cables were pulled, even slightly at the onset, and the number three propeller, in one instant producing about horsepower in forward, slammed into about horsepower of reverse thrust.
Boat Propeller guards / prop guards, propeller guard technical reports, research, and patents, propeller strike accidents, injuries and the resulting legal cases, propeller guard manufacturers, manatee propeller issues, and the use of sensors to detect people near the propeller (Virtual Propeller Guards) are covered here.
Drowning is a form of asphyxia due to aspiration of fluid into air-passages, caused by submersion in water or other fluid. Complete submersion is not necessary, for submersion of the nose and mouth alone for a sufficient period can cause death from drowning.