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It studies how men, women, children, old people and even animals tend to communicate. In the case of humans, it is not concerned with one or two languages, but all of the languages in the world.
It observes the, phonological, lexical, and syntactic differences between languages and moreover dialects within one area. Linguists go further to study the gender speech differences.
However this study has not shown until recently. As we shall see later, linguists such as Robin Lakoff, Deborah Tannen, and William Labov studied the differences of speech between men and women. She offers various reasons why women tend to speak differently from men.
As well as Ronald Wardhaugh, in his An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, offers his studies about various linguists concentrating on the gender speech differences. Those linguists cooperated in answering one question; which is why women tend speak differently from men If we observe the history of this study of the speech differences between men and women, we will find that it was first tackled by Robin Lakoff.
She returns this difference in speech to the existence of sexism in society. Inshe wrote the first article specifically concerned with women and language. In in her book Language and Women Place, she set basic assumptions of what marks out the speech of women, such as: That is a matter to debate and leads to the question, can sexism cause differences in speech between the two sexes?
Is it to that extent? Women frequently use tag questions to weaken or qualify their statements e. Again, this brings us to a similar question as the previous, which is why women need so much to qualify their statements.
However, William Labov attributes it to a slightly different case which is the socioeconomic class. He realized that women tend to speak like higher classes rather than men. He went through three different department stores in New York. He continued this process with the three stores. In the first one, clients pronounced the r ; which denotes the high standard.
In the second store selling products with average price, only half of the clients pronounced the r. This proves that it is a nature in women to have the desire to rise to a higher standard. However, Holmes focuses more on how men and women of the same speech community speak differently.
She offers various examples of different speech communities as evidence that men and women within one speech community speak differently. She starts with how women and men in the same speech community not speaking a different dialect but a totally different language.
She gives an example of the Amazonian Indian woman. Her first language is Desano but the language she uses to speak to her children and husband is Tuyuka.
She then gives an example where men and women within one speech community share one language, but still women tend to speak slightly different linguistic features than men. Holmes provides several ways in which men and women differ in their speech.
First, there is the different use of word-shapes between men and women in the use of affixes. For example, in Yana, a North American Indian men use words rather longer than women use of it.
In some communities, men are more powerful than women. However, in such society, the linguistic differences between the two sexes can be said to be emerging due to the social hierarchy as a whole. Holmes gives the example of Bengali where a wife should not address her husband by his first name because of being subordinate to him.
As we have just seen, here social factors interfere in the gender differences of speech. To illustrate this, Holmes offers a comparison between the three social classes in society: She comes out with the conclusion that women favor the standard form of speech. She gives four explanations: She then shares her study in New York and Norwich where women reported that they use these forms of standard speech because they lack status in society.Holmes is more so an evaluator whereas Macaulay is a credible linguistic professor, but this is not what makes Macaulay’s essay more effective than Holmes's.
What jumps out at me at the very instance I look at Holmes’s essay is a bunch of data/studies received from different credible authorities.
Write an essay in which you evaluate the effectiveness of Ronald Macaulay’s essay “Sex Differences,” based on your analysis of its claims, evidence, and/or the presentation of the claims and evidence. Janet Holems & Ronald Macaulay Difference Ronald Macaulay breakdown in their essay.
Although they do not talk about the exact same topic there are certain aspects we can pull from both writer’s essays in which we can find similar and dissimilar points both discuss.
Janet Holems & Ronald Macaulay Difference Essay Sample. Language. Gender. When the two meet so does a conversation. A conversation that underlines the differences between men and woman, and that is what both Janet Holmes and Ronald Macaulay breakdown in their essay.
Language and gender - Volume 24 Issue 4 - Janet Holmes.
Skip to main content. Holmes, Janet (). Sex differences and language use in the ESL classroom. Macaulay, Ronald K. (). The myth of female superiority in language. Journal of Child Language, 5, – Furthermore, some authors such as Janet Holmes and Ronald Macaulay argue that gender stereotypes cause people (including academics) to overemphasize such differences, while other authors such as Rachel Rafelman and Clive Thompson tend to see the influence of male-female distinctions as very real and palpable, regardless of the cause.