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Description[ edit ] The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodioritebearing three inscriptions No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.
The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on The history of stone age essay right side, and 12 of them on the left.
The following register of demotic text has survived best; it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side.
The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone. The texts are of similar length. These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for "stela" on the stone itself, see Gardiner's sign listsuggest that it originally had a rounded top.
The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir " in the Egyptian calendarwhich corresponds to March 27, BC. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in BC by Aristomenes of Alyziawho was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.
Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thracewhile the Battle of Panium BC had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syriaincluding Judaeafrom the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.
In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" hieroglyphsthe "language of documents" demoticand the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government.
The High Priests of Memphis —where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom. An up-to-date translation by R. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text.
Bevan 's full translation in The House of Ptolemy based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.
The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid Rosetta where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay c.
Unlike the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyphic texts of these other copies of the decree were relatively intact. The Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before they were found, but later Egyptologists, including Wallis Budgeused these other copies to refine the reconstruction of the hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone.
A corps of technical experts savantsknown as the Commission des Sciences et des Artsaccompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt. On July 15,French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Juliena couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta modern-day Rashid.
Lancret's report, dated July 19,was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs.
One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcela printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought.
The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them. In Marchthe British landed at Aboukir Bay. Menou was now in command of the French expedition.
His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with many other antiquities. He was defeated in battle, and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city.
Menou surrendered on August Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamiltonnewly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed.
In a letter home, Clarke said that "we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined".The Stone Age was a time in history when early humans used tools and weapons made out of plombier-nemours.com lasted from when the first stone tools were made by our ancestors about million years ago, until the introduction of metal tools a few thousand years ago.
In fact, the Stone Age was the time, when religious views of people were uncertain, they develop animism, totemic religious views and other religious and beliefs, which were grounded on their perception of the surrounding nature and their inability to comprehend adequately natural phenomena and to condition their environment to their needs.
A History of the Stone Age PAGES 2. WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University Generating Preview This preview is partially blurred.
Sign up to view the complete essay. Show me the full essay. Show me the full essay. View Full Essay. This is the end. A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources.
The Stone Age was a time thousands of years ago, when early humans lived in caves and jungles.
Life was simple, and there were only two main things to do – . Brief Review in Global History and Geography The Influence of Geography on History Document-Based Essay. This task is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents and is based on the accompanying documents (1–7).