Exactly what do we mean with a town or city?
Free access is comprises of several examples such as squares, streets or other rights of way in residential or commercial uses. It also involves the interfaces with private spaces that accessible to public internally and externally.
Other than being the democracy place in the Greek polis, the agoras are functioned as an open marketplace for the people. Mumford described the agora as a rectangular square and act like the dynamic center for the city. The agora in the ancient Greek polis known as the most tenacious and oldest place of assembly and a festival place where people conduct their conversations and meeting with others Xing et al, The Roman forum functions as a place to a higher degree of formal order activities as the Romans had more 16 diverse urban structures compared to the Greek.
The forum was not only acted like a square, but it was established as a comprehensive and complex community area filled with nodes consist of council houses, temples, shrines and the hall of justice Xiang et al, The advancement of public spaces which includes political assembly, informal gathering as well as business transaction resulted by the major role of the forum especially as a medium involving public event and political affair, shopping and worshipping.
Based on Baiduin Chinese ancient cities, market place always referred as Shi Jing. Shi Jing, according to Guan Zi, the well-known Chinese encyclopedia, is the commercial district during that era that comprised with theater hall, restaurants and hotels Xiang et al, Normally the temple designed to have a square base where most of the religious ceremonies will take place on it and until this day, the Chinese people still go to their variations of temples to pray and attend for events related to the religion.
In summary, ancient Chinese public space became the place where all daily activities such as religious ceremonies, festivals and business and trade activities were held, making it convenience to the people to experience their daily life close to each other.
Hence, many business and commercial activities happened in public places resulting market squares to be opened especially during the festivals related to religion.
Furthermore, based on Mumfordthe market place acted similar to the agora or the forum as the market place was big enough for huge ceremonies and gatherings.
The location of the market place that situated in front of the cathedrals and churches that were the focus of daily community activities for festivals and religious activities transformed it into bigger role for the city which is squares. Other than that, streets or paths were functioned as public spaces during Middle Ages era.
According to Siustreets are defined as lines of communication for pedestrians. Streets and paths in the Middle Ages were designed to be more narrow compared to modern roads so that the people managed to do their routine outdoor activities without difficulty.
In conclusion, the public space in Middle Ages became more vibrant as the many of the daily activities or ceremonies happened at the marketplace hence it formed as a squares for the place while streets and paths were where more communal and active but less controlled places for public took place.
This is when the public space changed its role where the squares in London and Paris as well as the Piazzas in Italy became the most substantial types of the public spaces at that time.
One can say that the Italian piazzas were designed and planned to be attractive and amusing for the people. Other than that, he explained that French squares were usually occupied with blaring activities resulting by the communication between the people.
Unfortunately, not many of the square in Paris open and available to public where it was restricted only to the upper class citizens like the Palace Royale Mumford, Most of the lands of the squares stated by Mumford were owned by the landlords where the square intentionally designed to fulfill the needs of upper class citizens.
Urban Public Space Public space is not just about its historical contextual, size or its form. The history of public spaces from previous eras shown that the public spaces have such a varied functions and forms in relation to religion, social, cultural and also political factors Xiang et al, There is no doubt that there are some public spaces are very close to the people for various reasons, thus become well-known such as New York Plazas and Parks and London Marketplace.
London Marketplace Carmona et al explained that the markets became a very important way of living for English urban people, comparable with the agora for the ancient Greek people. Like the agora, marketplaces gave the chance for the English people to involve in public life related to politics, religion and business.
Marketplace was known as a medium for people to meet, chat, spreading the news as well as selling and purchasing. As discussed before, Covent Garden in London was the first square emerged in England and became as an upper class residential area where the market stretched from just one part of the place to its whole area.
Giouard stated that the transformation of Convent Garden displayed a recreation of a public space from just an obvious open space to commercial urban life. Other than that, another crucial example for public space transformation in London was the opening of the Royal parks to the public.
Siu described the pressure from the public was among the reasons the Royal parks and squares opened to all people in London apart from the need for the fresh air that good for the health was another reason behind the opening of the Royal parks to public Giouard, Brent Staples.
Public Space," Brent Staples demonstrates how a stereotype on race and sex can intervene with one another. Each point, whether a narrative or remark, can have positive and negative outcomes on the audience Staples is trying to enlighten.
His thesis, the ability to alter public space through racial stereotypes, affected him as well as . Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuu’s.
Black Men in Public Space - In the short essay, “Black Men in Public Space” written by Brent Staples, discusses his own experiences on how he is stereotyped because he is an African American and looks intimidated in “public places” (Staples ).
Mar 20, · Consider the following topics that could interest you: 1. Modern and historical landscapes.
2. Urban aesthetics and new trends in urban design. 3. Eco-friendly development. 4. New design methodologies. 5.
Preservation methods . Thesis Statement Essay Sample. Staple’s essay “Black Men and Public Space” uses autobiography, observation, and reflection to explain .
IN PUBLIC SPACES By VENETIN AGHOSTIN-SANGAR THESIS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements Introduction: The Study of Human Behaviour in Public Spaces 1 The Problem 2 Research Question 3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study 4 Significance of this Topic 5.