Through her analysis of these two forms of male violence against women, Crenshaw says that the experiences of women of color consist of a combination or intersection of both racism and sexism. Structural intersectionality deals with how women of color experience domestic violence and rape in a manner qualitatively different from the ways that white women experience them.
What we have are largely notes, written at various points in his career, for different purposes, edited and cobbled together by later followers.
The style of the resulting collection is often rambling, repetitious, obscure, and disjointed. There are many arcane, puzzling, and perhaps contradictory passages.
Some familiarity with Greek terminology is required if one hopes to capture the nuances in his thought. Classicists and scholars do argue, of course, about the precise Greek meaning of key words or phrases but many of these debates involve minor points of interpretation that cannot concern us here.
Many good translations of Aristotle are available. Parenthetical citations below include the approximate Bekker number the scholarly notation for referring to Aristotelian passages according to page, column, and line number of a standard editionthe English title of the work, and the name of the translator.
Ancient commentators regarded logic as a widely-applicable instrument or method for careful thinking. These books touch on many issues: But we cannot confine our present investigations to the Organon. Aristotle comments on the principle of non-contradiction in the Metaphysics, on less rigorous forms of argument in the Rhetoric, on the intellectual virtues in the Nicomachean Ethics, on the difference between truth and falsity in On the Soul, and so on.
We cannot overlook such important passages if we wish to gain an adequate understanding of Aristotelian logic. Categories The world, as Aristotle describes it in his Categories, is composed of substances—separate, individual things—to which various characterizations or properties can be ascribed.
Each substance is a unified whole composed of interlocking parts. There are two kinds of substances. A primary substance is in the simplest instance an independent or detachable object, composed of matter, characterized by form.
Individual living organisms—a man, a rainbow trout, an oak tree—provide the most unambiguous examples of primary substances. Secondary substances are the larger groups, the species or genera, to which these individual organisms belong.
So man, horse, mammals, animals and so on would be examples of secondary substances. Aristotle elaborates a logic that is designed to describe what exists in the world. We may well wonder then, how many different ways can we describe something? In his Categories 4.
In the Topics I. We can, along with Aristotle, give an example of each kind of description: Commentators claim that these ten categories represent either different descriptions of being or different kinds of being.
To be a substance is to be in a certain way; to possess quantity is to be in a certain way; to possess a quality is to be in a certain way, and so on. There is nothing magical about the number ten. Aristotle gives shorter lists elsewhere.
Compare Posterior Analytics, I. Whether Aristotle intends the longer lists as a complete enumeration of all conceivable types of descriptions is an open question. Scholars have noticed that the first category, substance or essence, seems to be fundamentally different than the others; it is what something is in the most complete and perfect way.
From Words into Propositions Aristotle does not believe that all reasoning deals with words. Moral decision-making is, for Aristotle, a form of reasoning that can occur without words. Still, words are a good place to begin our study of his logic.
Logic, as we now understand it, chiefly has to do with how we evaluate arguments.Aristotle: Logic. Aristotelian logic, after a great and early triumph, consolidated its position of influence to rule over the philosophical world throughout the Middle Ages up until the 19 th Century.
All that changed in a hurry when modern logicians embraced a new kind of mathematical logic and pushed out what they regarded as the antiquated and clunky method of syllogisms.
Classes that stigmatize and isolate students because of one kind of difference are rarely welcoming places for students with other differences. At Washington Elementary School, Mary Beth, a 7-year-old facing significant cognitive and behavioral challenges, is now fully included in the regular 2nd.
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Whether the subject is Ebola, vaccines or climate change, speculation and conspiracy theories compete with science for the public’s trust. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE: A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation.
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